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 Post subject: Chronic respiratory disease
PostPosted: Thu Sep 13, 2007 9:05 am 
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Chronic respiratory disease

Introduction
Chronic respiratory disease (CRD) is one of the most common respiratory diseases of poultry in Australia. The disease occurs when birds infected with Mycoplasma gallisepticum are stressed. The subsequent invasion by secondary bacteria causes the major damage to the bird.
Scientific name Mycoplasma gallisepticum plus other organisms Cause Mycoplasma gallisepticum + chronic stress factor + secondary coliform organisms cause respiratory disease Species susceptible Chickens and turkeys.
Incidence Very widespread and present in most, if not all commercial flocks. Each batch of new pullets will become infected.
Transmission CRD is the most prevalent of the so called 'stress diseases'. Mycoplasma gallisepticum may be present in tissues of healthy birds (carrier birds). Outbreaks occur most frequently when the flock's vitality is lowered at times of stress (for example, moving, chilling, vaccinating, beak trimming, worming, poor ventilation, damp litter and ammonia build up) or in the presence of other diseases.
Transmission may occur even in flocks that appear to be perfectly healthy.
Egg Transmission - of major importance and the means by which the disease perpetuates itself.
Airborne (aerosol) - generally rapid, but does not travel distances.
Indirect or mechanical - the major means of entry of CRD is by the introduction of infected carrier birds or transport by persons such as service personnel, vaccinators and blood testers. The risk is great when people handle CRD-free birds on the same day after handling CRD-infected birds. Transfer can also occur on equipment (crates, vehicles, and vaccinating equipment).
Incubation period Incubation is 5 to l0 days.
Symptoms Sniffing, rattling, sneezing, coughing and other signs of respiratory distress. There may be wet noses, retarded growth in growing birds and a production loss (20 to 30%) in hens. The disease spreads slowly through the flock and there is a continual cycle of reinfection so that the disease never disappears by itself.
Deaths are few in uncomplicated cases.
Financial losses are due to poor feed conversion, retarded growth, drug costs, mortality, increased culling and poor production. Diagnosis Lesions Mucus in the trachea, sinuses and bronchi. Cloudy, thickened air sacs, perihepatitis and pericarditis due to secondary bacteria.
Diagnosis
Isolation and identification of the causative agent. Isolation of mycoplasma is difficult, and an isolate must be confirmed to be Mycoplasma gallisepticum as many serotypes of mycoplasma are present in the respiratory tract of birds. Blood tests vary in reliability.
Similar diseases
Coryza
Infectious bronchitis
Infectious laryngotracheitis
Fowl cholera

Treatment
Medicinal - there are several antibiotics including “Baytril” which, given in correct doses, will help control the disease and minimise secondary bacterial complications, although they usually do not control the disease completely.
Control
Control predisposing factors and attend to hygiene.
Keep birds in older age groups separate from young birds.
Isolate affected groups.
Prevention Medicinal - the organism may be present in a flock without producing any signs of disease. It will spread slowly to other birds until the birds are 'stressed' when it will spread more rapidly. Therefore treat the flock before the birds are stressed. Where CRD is a problem, birds should be treated with a suitable medication in the first 3 days of life, at four weeks of age and at maturity. These measures may not prevent the disease but will lessen the likelihood of an outbreak.
Vaccination - pullets reared in isolation can be vaccinated to prevent infection with Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Suppliers of point of lay pullets can provide vaccinated pullets.
Management - house infected and uninfected flocks at least 50 to l00 m apart. Prevent the disease spreading by adopting basic principles of isolation and all-in, all-out management and buy vaccinated pullets.


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 Post subject: Re: Chronic respiratory disease
PostPosted: Tue Mar 24, 2009 7:51 am 
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Joined: Fri Mar 20, 2009 12:05 pm
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P.A wrote:
Chronic respiratory disease
Prevent the disease spreading by adopting basic principles of isolation and all-in, all-out management and buy vaccinated pullets.


I totally agree the the above, very good advice, very helpful, cheers.


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 Post subject: Re: Chronic respiratory disease
PostPosted: Mon Apr 20, 2009 3:32 pm 
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Joined: Thu Apr 16, 2009 10:11 pm
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I'm sick of see this disease at auctions & shows when will these clubs and auctioneers clean up their act and stop spreading the dam disease (......mad)


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 Post subject: Re: Chronic respiratory disease
PostPosted: Sat Nov 21, 2009 6:57 pm 
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Joined: Sat Nov 21, 2009 12:23 pm
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Location: Rosewood Qld
I second that I have been to auctions and walked out because so many have the symptoms, disgusting.


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 Post subject: Re: Chronic respiratory disease
PostPosted: Mon Nov 23, 2009 9:41 pm 
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Joined: Mon Nov 23, 2009 5:35 pm
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Know the feeling hmmmmmm


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 Post subject: Re: Chronic respiratory disease
PostPosted: Mon Dec 14, 2009 10:19 pm 
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Joined: Sun Dec 13, 2009 1:53 pm
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Is this disease contagious to guinea fowl keets & ducklings? I have 2 hens that may have it and both have had contact with the keets & ducklings


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 Post subject: Re: Chronic respiratory disease
PostPosted: Sun Dec 20, 2009 7:09 am 
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Joined: Mon Dec 07, 2009 10:47 am
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I would like to know also as I have just got them too


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 Post subject: Re: Chronic respiratory disease
PostPosted: Sun Dec 20, 2009 11:44 am 
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Joined: Thu Sep 10, 2009 6:45 pm
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I think any poultry can get it :?:




HBG

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